Session 2: Nanomaterials for Safety Assessment
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Schmallenberg, Germany
Dr. Kerstin Hund-Rinke research fields are ecotoxicological/ecological evaluation of soil quality; microbial biodiversity, bioavailability of pollutants; ecotoxicological / ecological investigations and risk assessment of chemicals, pesticides, biocides, products, nanomaterials. She is coordinating of the research at Fh-IME on fate and effect of nanomaterials.
Research fields/tasks, nanomaterials:
Adaptation of standardized aquatic and terrestrial test guidelines (e.g. OECD) on the testing of nanomaterials; adaptation of a high-throughput test with algae as
screening approach on ecotoxicity of nanomaterials; fate and effect of nanomaterials in complex test systems (e.g. aquatic microcosms, model sewage treatment plants); method development on the determination of nanomate-
rials in complex environmental matrices (e.g. sewage sludge); hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials.
ABSTRACT CONTENT / DETAILS:
OECD’s Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) launched a Sponsorship Programme in November 2007. This collaborative programme supports the development and collection of data on the characterization, on the toxicological and ecotoxicological testing as well as on the risk assessment and safety evaluation of nanomaterials. The WPMN agreed on a priority list of 13 nanomaterials to be tested considering materials which are in or close to commerce. The aim of the project is to provide a basis for the measurement, toxicology testing and risk assessment of nanomaterials. Various nanomaterials were selected from the following substance groups: Ag, Fe, TiO2, Al2O3, CeO2, ZnO, SiO2, Au, fullerenes (C60), nanoclays, dendrimers, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).
Nanomaterials are characterized by a particle size distribution, therefore standardized sub-samples are required for scientific testing. For a scientifically sound comparison of results obtained in world-wide testing comparable sub-samples are a prerequisite. Sub-sampling of the nanomaterials under Good Laboratory Practice is carried out by Fraunhofer IME. The sub-samples are prepared and homogenized using an air-cleaned and solvent-free laboratory. As the nanomaterials behave differently and are available in different forms as dispersion or in powder form, sub-sampling is performed individually. The prepared sub-samples are fumigated with Argon to ensure long-term stability and sealed with Teflon stopper and crimped caps. Since the sub-samples are intended for single use, they consist of small amounts (250 – 2000 mg) of the nanomaterials. Regardless of the material the characterization of the final material as well as homogeneity and stability testing are performed by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC).
The nanomaterials are made available for every test purpose independent of the Sponsorship Programme. They are supplied by Fraunhofer IME and JRC. Also reports on the results of the TEM characterization performed by Coda-Cerva and financially supported by Fraunhofer IME are available. The nanomaterials were dispersed in three different media (double distilled water, buffer with respect to human toxicity, mineral medium with respect to ecotoxicity). Furthermore, comprehensive reports on the characterization, the stability and homogeneity of the nanomaterials are already available for Zn, CeO2 and for one Ag-nanomaterial under the series title 'NM-Series of Representative Manufactured Nanomaterials'. Reports on further types of materials are planned.